ARAWAK: On his first voyage, Columbus took 25 Arawaks back to Spain (only 8 arrived alive). On his 2nd voyage, he rounded up 1500 of “the best” and selected 500 for Spain (200 died en route) and 500 went to his men on the islands.
PEQUOT: Pequot War captives were sent to the Caribbean in 1637 to be enslaved on plantations.
SOUTHWEST: In the Southwest, Apache and Navajo were enslaved right up until the Civil War.
PLAINS: In the Plains, so many Pawnee were enslaved that the word “Pawnee” became synonymous with the word “slave.”
But we fought back
- In 1516, more than 10,000 NA’s were imported from the Bahamas to the Caribbean (Haiti, Puerto Rico, Cuba). In 1519, the first large-scale slave revolt of NA’s and African Americans in Haiti began (and lasted for 10 years).
- In 1712, there was a slave rebellion in New York City (1 in 4 residents was a slave, and 1 in 4 of those was NA, the other 3 were African American)
- The Term Negro May Have Been Meant For American Indians
- 1619 Might Not Be the Right Year
- 1600s Law Said the Closest Indians Were Guilty—of Murder
- Natives in Virginia Were Part African, Exported Cotton and Were Valued Members of Society
- Native Americans Contributed to Literary History
- Indians Got Poison Not Peace at 1623 Negotiations
Loewen, J (1995). Lies my teacher told me. New York, NY: Touchstone.
O'Nell, T. D. (1996). Disciplined hearts: History, identity, and depression in an American Indian community. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.